Relationship between contraceptive use and gynecologic cancers

Relationship between contraceptive use and gynecologic cancers 

S.Sinan Ozalp, Omer T. Yalcin, H. Mete Tanir, and Ceren Yildiz 

Eskisehir Osmangazi

University School of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology,

Eskisehir, Turkey 

Objective The aim of this retrospective study was to assess

the association between the contraceptive use and gynecologic cancers. 

Design and methods The study group included 41 cervical cancer, 70 endometrium

cancer and 58 ovarian cancer patients. Control group consisted of 61 cases with

a diagnosis of leiomyoma uteri within a period of six years. Groups were

compared based on demographic characteristics and the last contraceptive method

used. Data were then analyzed by using SPSS 13.0 statistically package programme

(SPSS 13.0 Inc., Chicago IL, USA). 

Results Mean age of cervical, endometrial

ovarian cancers and leiomyomas uteri were 53.2 years, 58.1 years, 54.9 years

and, 44.3 years, respectively. Cervical cancer patients had a similar percentage

of combined oral contraceptives (COC) and intrauterine device (IUD) use,

compared to control group. Control group had a higher percentage of condom use,

compared to cervical cancer patients (21.3%vs 4.3%, respectively; p<0.05). The least preferred contraceptive method in cervical cancer patients was found to be condom use. 

Compared to ovarian cancer patients, percentage of COC use was

higher in the control group (27.6% vs 6.4%, p<0.05). However, among two groups, there was no difference detected regarding the use of IUD and condom. The least preferred contraceptive method among ovarian cancer cases was COC. There was no stastistically significant difference for IUD and condom use between endometrial cancer and control group. Proportion of condom use in endometrium cancer and the control group was 8.6% and 27.5%, respectively (p<0.05). The least preferred contraceptive method in endometrial cancer cases was condom use. 

Conclusions It is well known that condom use is

protective for cervical cancer. In our study, it was found that condom use was

significantly lower in this group. COC use lowers the risk of ovarian cancer

development. In the present study, frequency of COC use was significantly low in

the ovarian cancer patients. The unexpected finding of the present study was the

infrequent use of condom among endometrial cancer patients, which needs further


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